Timeline of the Hundred Years War
King Edward II is forced to abdicate in favour of his son. Edward III becomes King despite having not come of age, with the Government being controlled predominantly by his mother in the early years of his reign.
King Charles IV of France dies. There is no direct mail heir. The throne is taken by his cousin, Philip, but Edward III has a claim to it.
Relations between England and France breakdown. France lay claim to Aquitaine in a dispute over paying homage. It leads to the outbreak of war between England and France.
23rd January 1340
Battle of Sluys. The English launch an attack against the French Fleet which is at anchor off Sluys. The English are victorious, destroying much of the French Fleet.
Gascony had been seized by France early in the conflict. England is determined to reclaim the region and this is achieved by the Earl of Derby.
Edward III of England launches an invasion of Normandy.
26 August 1346
Edward III of England and his son Edward the Black Prince defeat Philip VI of France at Crécy.
David II of Scotland, an ally of Philip VI of France, invades northern England.
17 October 1346
An English army defeats the Scots at the Battle of Neville’s Cross. David II of Scotland is taken prisoner by the English.
The important port of Calais is taken by Edward III of England and his son Edward the Black Prince.
An unsuccessful attempt by the French to recapture Calais.
19 September 1356
John II of France is captured as The Black Prince wins a famous victory over the French in the Battle of Poitiers.
Edward III of England and Edward the Black Prince march on Rheims but the French city holds out.
The Treaty of Brétigny between England and France. It recognises Edward III of England’s claims to French lands, Gascony and Normandy in particular. In return, he renounces his claim to the French throne.
Edward the Black Prince is made the Prince of Aquitaine by his father Edward III of England.
3 April 1367
The English are involved in the Castillian Civil War. Edward the Black Prince is victorious in the Battle of Najera.
Edward the Black Prince retakes Limoges from the French. 3000 innocent people are slaughtered in the aftermath of the Battle.
1372 – 1375
The French are resurgent and recapture much of the land that Edward III had gained. England now has only Calais and Gascony as continental possessions.
9 February 1372
The ceremonial entry into London of Constance of Castile, prior to her marriage to John of Gaunt. This page looks at the way in which medieval marriages such as that of John of Gaunt and Constance of Castile were used diplomatically.
12 Mar 1396
Richard II of England marries Isabella of France, the daughter of Charles VI of France. A truce forms part of the marriage contract which results in 2 decades of relative peace.
6 February 1402
7 February 1415
‘Evil without numbers‘ a term used by Martin Gourges, Bishop of Chartres in relation to the Burgundians. The phrase is part of the Armagnac justification for imposing tough conditions on Burgundy in the Peace Settlement.
Henry V of England captures the Fench port of Harfleur.
25 Oct 1415
Battle of Agincourt in France between English and French armies. The former, led by Henry V of England, was victorious.
1417 – 1419
The Duchy of Normandy gradually falls to King Henry V of England.
Henry V of England captures Rouen. External Link – Siege of Rouen, by Nathen Amin.
Treaty of Troyes. The French accept terms which sees Henry V of England and his line named as the heirs to Charles VI of France.
2 Jun 1420
Henry V of England marries Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France in Troyes Cathedral.
1st December 1420
French victory at the Battle of Baugé.
11 May 1422
Henry V of England captures the French stronghold of Meaux.
Joan of Arc inspires the lifting of the Siege of Orleans; a major victory for the French.
17 Jul 1429
Coronation of Charles VII of France in Rheims.
9th January 1431
The Trial of Joan of Arc opens.
16 Dec 1431
Coronation of Henry VI of England as king of France (Henry II) in Notre-dame de Paris.
1434 – 1435
Sir Henry Talbot commands the English defending forces at Paris. The French are repulsed.
Burgundy changes allegiance from England to France.
Paris is taken by the French.
1444 – 1449
5-year truce in place. The French use the time to develop a new, professional, army and alter their tactics.
Maine is ceded to France as part of the marriage contract between Henry VI (England) and Margaret of Anjou.
22 Apr 1445
Henry VI of England marries Margaret of Anjou, niece of Charles VII of France.
28th January 1450
The fall of Normandy to the French.
The French take Gascony.
The English are defeated by the French at the Battle of Castillon, the last battle of the Hundred Years’ War.